What does ... mean in javascript?

What does … mean in javascript?

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In JavaScript, the ellipsis (…) is a syntax feature that serves multiple purposes. It can be used in various contexts to achieve different outcomes. This article will explore the different meanings and uses of the ellipsis in JavaScript.

Spread Syntax

One of the primary uses of the ellipsis in JavaScript is in the spread syntax. The spread syntax allows an iterable, such as an array or a string, to be expanded into individual elements. It is denoted by the ellipsis followed by the iterable. For example:

const numbers = [1, 2, 3];
console.log(…numbers); // Output: 1 2 3

const str = “Hello”;
console.log(…str); // Output: H e l l o

In the above examples, the spread syntax expands the array and string into individual elements. This can be useful when passing multiple arguments to a function or when creating a new array by combining existing arrays.

Rest Parameters

The ellipsis is also used in JavaScript to define rest parameters. Rest parameters allow a function to accept an indefinite number of arguments as an array. The ellipsis is used before the last parameter of a function to represent the rest of the arguments. Here’s an example:

function sum(…numbers) {
return numbers.reduce((total, num) => total + num, 0);

console.log(sum(1, 2, 3, 4)); // Output: 10

In the above example, the rest parameter `…numbers` captures all the arguments passed to the `sum` function and stores them in an array. This allows the function to handle any number of arguments without explicitly defining them.

Object Destructuring

The ellipsis can also be used in object destructuring to assign the remaining properties of an object to a new variable. This is useful when you want to extract specific properties from an object and assign the rest to a separate variable. Here’s an example:

const person = {
name: “John”,
age: 30,
city: “New York”,
country: “USA”,

const { name, age, …details } = person;

console.log(name); // Output: John
console.log(age); // Output: 30
console.log(details); // Output: { city: “New York”, country: “USA” }

In the above example, the ellipsis is used to assign the remaining properties (`city` and `country`) of the `person` object to the `details` variable. This allows for more flexible object destructuring, where specific properties can be extracted while keeping the rest of the object intact.


The ellipsis (…) in JavaScript has multiple uses and meanings. It is used in spread syntax to expand iterables into individual elements, in rest parameters to capture an indefinite number of arguments, and in object destructuring to assign the remaining properties to a new variable. Understanding these different uses can greatly enhance your JavaScript programming skills.


– developer.mozilla.org: Spread syntax (https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Operators/Spread_syntax)
– developer.mozilla.org: Rest parameters (https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Functions/rest_parameters)
– developer.mozilla.org: Destructuring assignment (https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Operators/Destructuring_assignment)

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